Upon the rise of Adolf Hitler and the National Socialist German Workers Party the Nazi Party in Germany, gay men and, to a lesser extent, lesbianswere two of the numerous groups targeted by the Nazis and were ultimately among Holocaust victims. The Gestapo compiled lists of homosexuals, who were compelled to sexually conform to the "German norm". Between andan estimatedmen were arrested as homosexuals, of whom some 50, were officially sentenced.
It is used here with permission. Brownshirted storm troopers raided the institutions and gathering places of homosexuals. Greatly weakened and driven underground, this subculture had flourished in the relative freedom of the s, in the pubs and cafes of Berlin, Hamburg, Munich, Bremen, and other cities.
After taking power inthe Nazis persecuted homosexuals as part of their so-called moral crusade to racially and culturally purify Germany. This persecution ranged from dissolution of homosexual organizations to internment of thousands of individuals in concentration camps. Gay men, in particular, were subject to harassment, arrest, incarceration, and even castration.
Then the guardhouse door of the command tower opened, and an SS officer and some of his lackeys strode toward us. Our detail commander barked: 'Three hundred criminal deviants, present as ordered! The Klinker factory!
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This made some German homosexuals think he might ultimately tone down the Nazi stance. JSTOR is a digital library for scholars, researchers, and students. But a conservative estimate is that there were many tens of thousands to one hundred thousand arrests during the war period […].
However, five million additional individuals were persecuted, including a significant proportion of homosexuals. Our report does not include female homosexuals because at this time sexual relations between women was not illegal and therefore they were not persecuted for their sexuality. The estimate of homosexual victims of the Holocaust ranges from less than 10, to one million, as the result of a variety of factors.
In addition to six million Jews, more than five million non-Jews were murdered under the Nazi regime. Among them were Gypsies, Jehovah's Witnesses, homosexuals, blacks, the physically and mentally disabled, political opponents of the Nazis, including Communists and Social Democrats, dissenting clergy, resistance fighters, prisoners of war, Slavic peoples, and many individuals from the artistic communities whose opinions and works Hitler condemned. Who constituted this "master race?
Whilst their exact provenance is unknown, it is likely that these labels were handed out to encourage the boycott of Jewish shops and businesses. This type of antisemitic signage was visible all over Germany following the Nazis rise to power. It aimed to exclude Jews from every day life.
While male homosexuality remained illegal in Weimar Germany under Paragraph of the criminal code, German homosexual-rights activists became worldwide leaders in efforts to reform societal attitudes that condemned homosexuality. Many in Germany regarded the Weimar Republic's toleration of homosexuals as a sign of Germany's decadence. Nazi leaders posed as moral crusaders who wanted to stamp out the "vice" of homosexuality from Germany in order to help win the racial struggle.